Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland, four pea-sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps the body use and store calcium.
Having certain inherited disorders such as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome can increase the risk of developing parathyroid cancer. In addition, radiation therapy may increase the risk of developing parathyroid adenoma.
With an estimated incidence of 0.015 per 100,000 people and an estimated prevalence of 0.005 percent in the United States, parathyroid cancer is one of the rarest of all human cancers.Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)
Source: National Cancer Institute